Transformation of soil from a strong kingdom to a liquid nation due to accelerated strain and differential settlement of footings is referred to as soil liquefaction.

The features to be taken into consideration on the stage of architectural planning and structural layout of buildings for protection towards earthquakes are:

a) Building configuration
b) Foundation
c) Control on openings in partitions
d) Reinforced concrete bands in masonry residential buildings.
E) Vertical reinforcement.

Protection measures towards floods are:

I) Residing on river banks and slopes on river banks need to be prevented.
Ii) Buildings have to be built at 250 meters away from the sea coast/river banks.
Iii) To construct the right drainage system in all flood-prone areas.
Iv) To assemble the entire village or settlement on a raised platform higher than the high flood degree.
V) To assemble the building with a plinth level higher than the known excessive flood degree.

The measures adopted to control land degradation in one-of-a-kind regions of our users are:

I) Soil erosion in hilly areas can be checked by means of creation of terraces for farming.
Ii) Plugging of gullies by the construction of taking a look at dams.
Iii) A forestation can manipulate soil erosion on slopes.
Iv) In arid regions education of safe haven belts of flora manipulate overgrazing by using animals and developing thorny bushes to stabilize the sand dunes.
V) In semi-arid areas, moistures conservation, weed manipulate and right control of wasteland.
Vi) Control of mining sports are some of the techniques to scale back land degradation.

The number one goal of earthquake resistant layout is to prevent buildings from collapsing during earthquakes for this reason minimizing the chance of loss of life or damage to human beings in or around the one’s buildings. There are sure capabilities, which is considered at the degree of architectural planning and structural improve their performance for the duration of the earthquake.

The natural factors accountable for landslides are:
a) If slopes are steep.
B) If there is the excessive intensity of rainfall.
C) If slopes have stiffness.
D) Soil layers shaped under gravity.
E) Rock layers are fairly weathered.
F) Poor drainage.

The guy made factors liable for landslides are:
a) Soil erosion induced due to deforestation.
B) Mining and quarrying.
C) Excavation which is non-engineered.
D) Construction that is non-engineered.
E) Land use pattern.

If homes can’t withstand the forces of excessive winds and storm surge, then those homes are considered prone. Generally, those maxima prone to cyclones are light-weight systems with timber frames, specifically older homes where wooden has deteriorated and weakened the walls. Houses made from poorly built concrete blocks are also vulnerable.
Urban and rural communities on low islands or in unprotected low-lying coastal areas or river floodplains are taken into consideration at risk of cyclones.
Man-made elements responsible for causing landslides:
I) Soil erosion precipitated because of deforestation.
Ii) Mining and quarrying
iii) Excavation that is non-engineered
iv) Construction that’s non-engineered.
V) Land use pattern.

The configuration of an earthquake – resistant building are:

a) The building must have an easy rectangular plan.
B) Long walls need to be supported by Reinforced Concrete Columns.

Foundation of an earthquake-resistant building:

a) Assess the ability for soil liquefaction to avoid tilting cracking and failure of shape.
B) Adequate basis layout must be deliberate in order that building can resist earthquakes.

Vulnerable houses for landslides are those which are situated on:
a) Below hills with outcrops of fractured rock.
B) Steep natural slopes, mainly on weak geologic materials.
C) Developed hillsides where septic – tank, soil absorption structures are used and land-scapes are irrigated.
D) Steep production-associated cut or fill slopes.
E) Areas in or on the mouths of drainages which includes canyons.
F) Existing landslides vicinity.
Most prone homes for floods are:
a) If biomass materials like bamboo, leaves, thatch are used to construct huts then they’re without difficulty destroyed in floods and washed away.
B) Residential buildings which can be constructed with earth-primarily based cloth or using stone and brick in dust mortar.
C) Flood plains entice poor city dwellers due to less expensive land values.
D) Occupation of regions inside the floodplains of rivers in particular in regions of the high populace has increased the vulnerability.

The Effect on homes because of floods are:

a) Water beneath high stream velocity washes away the houses.
B) Rising waters may reason in the flotation of homes from their foundations.
C) Even even though houses stay intact on their foundation, floods may additionally purpose intense harm to substances.
D) The velocity of water may erode the basis of the residence which can also result in the collapse of the house.
E) Massive floating objects like bushes, electric powered poles, and so forth., may additionally impact the standing houses and cause considerable harm.
F) Other varieties of damage are wall erosion, cracks and bulging harm to water delivery, sanitation, and electric systems.

Protection measures in opposition to floods are:

a) Residing on river banks and slopes on river banks should be avoided.
B) Buildings ought to be constructed at 250 meters away from the sea coast/river banks.
C) To construct the right drainage systems in all flood-prone region.
D) To assemble the complete village or agreement on a raised platform higher than the high flood degree.
E) To assemble the building with a plinth level better than the recognized excessive flood level.

The outcomes of cyclones on buildings are:

I) Punching and blowing off of corrugated iron roofing sheets attached to steel trusses.
Ii) Brittle failure of asbestos – cement sheeting of the roofs of commercial sheds; failure of those sheets is generally ridges and gable ends.
Iii) Failure of large commercial buildings with lightweight roof coverings and lengthy/tall walls because of an aggregate of inner and external pressures.


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